Latin for "as much as is deserved." A legal principle under which a person
should not be obliged to pay, nor should another be allowed to receive, more
than the value of the goods or services exchanged.
A term referring to decisions made by administrative tribunals or government
officials to which the rules of natural justice apply. In judicial decisions,
the principles of natural justice always apply, but between routine government
policy decisions and the traditional court forums lies a hybrid, sometimes
called a "tribunal" or "administrative tribunal" and not necessarily presided
over by judges. This hybrid operates as a government policy-making body at times
but also exercises a licensing, certifying approval or other adjudication
authority which is "judicial" because it directly affects the legal rights of a
person. Some law teachers suggest that there is no such thing as a
"quasi-judicial" decision or body; the body or decision is either judicial or
Quid pro quo
Latin: "something for something". The giving of something having value in
exchange for a different thing of equal value.
The number of people who must be present at a meeting before business can be
conducted. Without a "quorum", decisions are invalid. Many organizations have a
quorum requirement to prevent decisions being taken without a majority of
members present. Typically, a quorum is one more than half of those who are
A Latin term: refers to that special legal procedure taken to stop a person or
organization from doing something for which it may not have the legal authority,
by demanding to know by what right the controversial authority is exercised.